1. Verbs

A. A Verb says something about a person or thing.
B. Verbs are divided into three different kinds :

1).  Transitive Verbs
*Transitive Verb requires an object to complete its meaning.
Examples :
a.  The hunter killed a bear.
b.  The scholar learned his lesson.

In ( a ) ” bear ” is the object of ” killed “.
In ( b ) ” lesson ” is the object of ” learned “.

*Transitive Verb has two voice :

1. The Active voice
The Active Voice represents the subject as acting upon an object.
Examples :   The cat caught the mouse
In this sentence the subject ” cat ” does something to the object ” mouse, ” so the verb ” caught ‘ is in the active voice.

2. The Passive voice
The Passive voice represents the subject as being acted upon.
Examples : The mouse was caught by the cat.
Here the subject ” mouse ” was the thing acted upon, so the verb ” was caught ‘ is in the passive voice.
Note :  An Intransitive verb from its nature cannot have voice

3. Intransitive Verbs
An Intransitive Verb does not require an object to complete its meaning.
Examples :
( a ) He sleeps
( b ) We go

No object can come after such verbs as ” sleep “, ” go ” etc

4. Auxiliary Verbs
An Auxiliary Verb is used to help an other verb.
( a ) I shall go.
( b ) We have come.
Note : A verb that is helped by an auxiliary verb is called a Principal verb.

In a ” shall ” is an auxilizry verb used to help the verb ” go ” to form a future time.
In b. ” have ” is an auxiliary verb used to help the verb ” come ” to express a time partly past and partly present.

C. Tenses of Verbs
1. Tense denotes the time of an action or its completeness.
2. There are three tenses : —
a. the Present Tense
b. the Past Tense
c. the Future Tense

=> The Present Tense denotes present time.
– I walk
– You walk
– He walks

– We walk.
– You walk.
– They walk.
=> The Past Tense denotes past time.
– I walked
– You walked
– He walked

– We walked.
– You walked.
– They walked.

=> The Future Tense denotes future time.
– I shall walk.
– You will walk.
– He will walk.
– We shall walk.
– You will walk.
– They will walk.


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