3. Nouns

A. A Noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.
B. Nouns are divided into five different kinds :
– Proper Nouns
– Common Nouns
– Collective nouns
– Material Nouns
– Abstract Nouns

A Proper Noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing.
eg :  John ( person ) ;  Palm Beach County ( place ) ; The Chinese ( people ); Books ( thing )

A Common Noun is a name that can be given to any person or thing of the same kind.
eg : Man, boy, table, dog

A Collective Noun is singular in form though denoting more than one.
eg : Herd, army, flock.

A Material Noun is the name of a substance
eg : Milk, iron, wood.

An Abstract noun is the name of a quality.
eg : Love, truth, color.

Number of Nouns :

1. Number shows whether one is meant, or more than one.

2. There are two Numbers :

The Singular Number
The Plural Number

– The Singular number denotes only one object.
boy, girl

– The Plural number denotes more than one object.
boys, girls.

– The Plural is generally formed by adding s to the Singular :
pen    =  pens             chair    =   chairs
book  =  books          garden  =  gardens

– When the noun ends in s, x, ch, or sh, the Plural is formed by adding es to the Singular :
glass  =   glasses        watch  =  watches
box    =   boxes          dish      = dishes

– If the noun ends in y, and the y has consonant going before it, the Plural is formed by changing y into ies :
duty   = duties          army  =  armies
fly      =  flies             lady    =  ladies

– But if the y has vowel going before it, the Plural is formed by simply adding s :
day    =  days                key          = keys
boy    = boys                monkey  = monkeys

– Most nouns ending in f or fe form the Plural by changing f or fe into ves
calf     = calves          life     =  lives
knife  = knives         wife    = wives
leaf    =  leaves          thief   = thieves

– If the noun ends in o, and the o is preceded by a consonant, the Plural is generally ( not always ) formed by adding es to the Singular : —
cargo  =  cargoes       negro  =  negroes
hero    =  heroes        potato = potatoes

– But if the o is preceded by a vowel, the Plural is formed by simply adding s to the singular : —
bamboo =    bamboos        curio  =  curios
cuckoo   = cuckoos            studio =  studios

– Some nouns from their Plurals irregularly :
man     = men              tooth   =  teeth
woman= women        mouse =  mice
foot      = feet               ox         = oxen
goose   = geese            child    = children

– Some Nouns have the same from in the Plural as in the Singular : –
deer    = deer                fish    = fish     ( fishes )
sheep  = sheep             dozen=  dozen ( dozens )

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